Associated Conditions

Associated Conditions

ADHD and Down Syndrome

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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a commonly diagnosed childhood problem. ADHD is characterized by consistent demonstration of the following traits: decreased attention span, impulsive behavior and excessive fidgeting or other non-directed motor activity.

Alzheimer’s Disease and Down Syndrome

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Adults with Down syndrome are at increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease as they grow older, but Alzheimer’s disease is not inevitable. There are many other possible issues to consider when concerns about memory arise, so a thoughtful approach is very important.

Anesthesia and Down Syndrome

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Complications of anesthesia (sedation during surgery) occur in all patient populations, including those with Down syndrome. It just so happens that some anesthesia complications are more likely to occur in individuals with Down syndrome than their peers without Down syndrome.

Blood Diseases and Down Syndrome

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People with Down syndrome frequently show abnormalities in the blood cells which include the red cells (cells that carry oxygen throughout the body), white cells (infection-fighting cells) and platelets (cells that help to stop bleeding).

Dental Issues and Down Syndrome

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Dental care is important for everybody, but people with Down syndrome can have a number of differences that require special attention.

Dual Diagnosis of Down Syndrome and Autism

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There is little written in the form of research or commentary about DS-ASD. In fact, until recently, it was commonly believed that the two conditions could not exist together. Parents were told their child had Down syndrome with a severe to profound cognitive impairment without further investigation or intervention into a diagnostic cause.

ASD 101: A Crash Course

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Every child with DS-ASD will be different in one way or another. Some will have speech, some will not. Some will rely heavily on routine and order, and others will be more easy-going. Combined with the wide range of abilities seen in Down syndrome alone, it can feel mystifying.

Ear Nose & Throat Issues and Down Syndrome

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Ear, nose, and throat (ENT) problems are common in individuals with Down syndrome. It is important for primary care physicians and caregivers to be aware of these problems, most of which are present throughout an individual’s life.

Endocrine Conditions and Down Syndrome

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Individuals with Down syndrome have a higher incidence of endocrine problems than the general population does. The endocrine system refers to a set of glands that include the thyroid, adrenal and pituitary glands.

Gastrointestinal Tract and Down Syndrome

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People with Down syndrome have an increased likelihood of developing medical conditions that can interrupt or interfere with their gastrointestinal (GI) systems. Some of these medical issues can be managed by a primary care physician while others may require the added expertise of a GI specialist.

The Heart and Down Syndrome

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Abnormalities of the cardiovascular system are common with Down syndrome. Approximately half of all infants born with Down syndrome have a heart defect. Many of these defects have serious implications.

Mental Health Issues and Down Syndrome

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At least half of all children and adults with Down syndrome face a major mental health concern during their lives. Those with multiple medical problems experience an even higher rate of mental health problems.

Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Down Syndrome

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Almost 60% of children with Down syndrome have abnormal sleep studies by the age of 4 years. The overall incidence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) increases as children grow older.

Vision and Down Syndrome

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Down syndrome has effects on the developing eye which can impact the proper development of vision. Eye disease is reported in over half of patients with Down syndrome, from less severe problems such as tear duct abnormalities to vision threatening diagnoses such as early age cataracts.